Elaine Showalter’s three phases of feminism: the “feminine” (women writers imitate men), the “feminist” (women advocated minority rights and protested), and the “female” (the focus is now on women’s texts as opposed to merely uncovering misogyny in men’s texts).
What are the three phases of feminism as discussed by Elaine Showalter in her essay towards a feminist politics?
Showalter presents three important stages of women’s writing. First, the imitation of the mainstream literary tradition: second, the protest against the standards of this dominant tradition and third, self-discovery which aims at a search for identity. Showalter identifies these stages as Feminine, Feminist and Female.
What are the different phases of feminism?
Three main types of feminism emerged: mainstream/liberal, radical, and cultural. Mainstream feminism focused on institutional reforms, which meant reducing gender discrimination, giving women access to male-dominated spaces, and promoting equality.
What does Showalter mean by feminine phase?
The Female phase (1920— ) is one of self-discovery. Showalter says, “women reject both imitation and protest—two forms of dependency—and turn instead to female experience as the source of an autonomous art, extending the feminist analysis of culture to the forms and techniques of literature”.
What is feminist poetics according to Elaine Showalter?
One of the most influential essay by the American critic Elaine Showalter, “Towards a Feminist Poetics” calls for a separate and autonomous model of literary theory by rejecting the inevitability of male models and theories and recalling women’s literary tradition to the present.
What did Elaine Showalter contribute to the evolution of feminism?
Rejecting both imitation and protest, Showalter advocated approaching feminist criticism from a cultural perspective in the current Female phase, rather than from perspectives that traditionally come from an androcentric perspective like psychoanalytic and biological theories, for example.
What are the three main types of feminism?
Traditionally feminism is often divided into three main traditions usually called liberal, reformist or mainstream feminism, radical feminism and socialist/Marxist feminism, sometimes known as the “Big Three” schools of feminist thought; since the late 20th century a variety of newer forms of feminisms have also …
What is 1st 2nd and 3rd wave feminism?
The key difference between first second and third wave feminism is that the first wave feminism was mainly about suffrage, and the second wave feminism was about reproductive rights, whereas the third wave feminism was about female heteronormality. … Meanwhile, the third wave started during the 1990s.
When was the third wave of feminism?
The third wave of feminism emerged in the mid-1990s. It was led by so-called Generation Xers who, born in the 1960s and ’70s in the developed world, came of age in a media-saturated and culturally and economically diverse milieu.
What is Gynocriticism Elaine Showalter?
Gynocriticism or gynocritics is the term coined in the seventies by Elaine Showalter to describe a new literary project intended to construct “a female framework for the analysis of women’s literature”.
What is Gynocriticism and how does it relate to feminist theory?
A concept introduced by Elaine Showalter in Towards a Feminist Poetics gynocriticism refers to a kind of criticism with woman as writer/producer of textual meaning, as against woman as reader (feminist critique).
What is Ecofeminist theory?
ecofeminism, also called ecological feminism, branch of feminism that examines the connections between women and nature. Its name was coined by French feminist Françoise d’Eaubonne in 1974. … Specifically, this philosophy emphasizes the ways both nature and women are treated by patriarchal (or male-centred) society.
Who has coined the term Gynocriticism?
Abstract. Gynocriticism is the study of women’s writing. The term gynocritics was coined by Elaine Showalter in 1979 to refer to a form of feminist literary criticism that is concerned with women as writers.
What are the different models proposed by Showalter?
Emphasizing the difference factor, Elaine Showalter brings out four models: Biological, Linguistics, Psychoanalytic and Cultural. Each of these models differentiates and define women’s writings and texts.
What is Gynocriticism PDF?
Gynocriticism is the study of women’s writing. … Gynocriticism established the historical study of women writers as a legitimate field of academic inquiry and developed to encompass a broad range of methodologies of reading women’s writing.